The first line of a four line metro is in the planning stages. Financing has been approved via the European Union and the French government. Construction was scheduled to begin in 2013.
According to a Russian metrofan page, whose photos unfortunately have disappeared, construction on a Damascus metro was uderway at some point.
Wikileaks Damascus Metro Plan
According to reports, the Syrian city of Aleppo is in the early stages of planning a light rail line.